Rodna Mountain National Park is a protected area of national interest located in northern Romania and extends into eastern extremity of Maramures county (on the administrative territories of communes Moisei and Săcel and the town Borşa) in the north-eastern part of county of Bistriţa-Năsăud County (territories of communes Maieru, Parva, Rebrişoara, Rodna, Romuli, Şanţ and Telciu and the town Sângeorz-Băi).
It is internationally designated as a biosphere reserve by UNESCO Committee, in the program “Man and Biosphere”. The current area is established in 2002 by the Ministry of Water and Environmental Protection. Of the total area of 46.399 ha of PNMR, 3.300 ha were declared a Biosphere Reserve in 1979.
In Rodna Mountain National Park are several natural areas of special scientific, geological, landscape, flora, fauna and speological interest, including: Pietrosu Mare (natural reserve included in the World Programme of UNESCO - “Man and Biosphere”), Piatra Rea, Narcissus Glade on the Saca Massif, Cave in Cobaşelului Valley, Ineu - Lala, Tăuşoarelor Spring Cave, Bătrâna Spring, Mihăiesei Springs, Cave and karst spring Blue Spring of Izei.
The natural area has several habitat types (Alpine and Boreal bushes, Shrubs with Salix sub-Arctic species, Bushes with Pinus mugo and Rhododendron myrtifolium, grasslands and alpine boreals on siliceous substrate, mountain hayfields, alpine and subalpine calcific pastures, Nardus mountain meadows rich in species on siliceous substrates, Dacian beech forests (Symphyto-Fagion), Luzulo-Fagetum beech forests, Larix decidua forests and / or Pinus cembra in mountainous regions, Picea abies acidofile forests in mountain region (Vaccinio-Piceetea), Communities of fringe with hygrophilic tall grasses from the plateaus up those of mountain and alpine, petrifying springs with travertine formations (Cratoneurion), transition and oscillating rabies swamp peats (unfixed to substrate), siliceous screes from the mountain to the alpine level (Androsacetalia alpinae and Galeopsietalia ladani), limestone and shale limestone screes from the mountain to the alpine level (Thlaspietea rotundifolii), herbaceous vegetation on the mountain river banks, wooden vegetation with Myricaria germanica along mountain rivers, active peatlands, pioneer alpine formations of Caricion bicoloris-atrofuscae, cave where public access is prohibited, alkaline swamps, rocky slopes with chasmophytic vegetation on siliceous rocks, wooden vegetation with Salix eleagnos along mountain rivers and rocky slopse with chasmophytic vegetation on limestone rocks) harboring a diverse range of flora and fauna specific for the range of the Oriental Carpathian Mountains.
Flora and fauna
The flora of the National Park consists of plant species distributed tiered according to geological structure, soil and climate characteristics, geomorphological structure or altitude. Referring to trees and shrubs, there are coniferous tree with species of: (Abies alba), (Picea Abies), (Pinus), (Larix decidua), (Pinus cembra), (Larix), (Taxus baccata) and hardwood with brushes: (Quercus petraea), (Quercus robur), (Fagus sylvatica), (Carpinus betulus), (Acer pseudoplatanus), (Tilia cordata), (Fraxinus excelsior), (Aesculus hippocastanum), (Ulmus glabra), (Acer platanoides), (Acer Campestre), (Betula pendula), (Prunus avium), (Populus tremula), (Alnus viridis), (Alder glutinosa), (Salix alba), (Salix caprea). At the grass level we encounter a diverse range of plants (some very rare and protected by law, other endemic to this area) with species of: (Rhododendron kotshyi), (Leontopodium alpinum), (Angelica archangelica) (Narcissus stellaris), (Trollius europaeus), (hepatitis transsilvanica), (Gentiana lutea), (Fritillaria Meleagris), (Ligusticum mutellina), (Heracleum palmatum), (Centaurea kotschyana), (Arnica montana), (Anthemis tinctoria subsp. fussii) (Hesperis levels), (Campanula patula ssp. abietina) (Dianthus tenuifolius), (Lychnis nivalis), (Silene acaulis), (Drosera rotundifolia), (Empetrum nigrum), (Sempervivum montanum), (Silene pusilla), (with species of Pinguicula vulgaris and Pinguicula alpina), (Menyanthes trifoliata), (Ranunculus Thora), (Aconitum toxicum), (Primula elatior subsp. leucophylla), (Soldanella hungarica ssp. hungarica), (Primula min), (Androsace chamaejasme), (Chrysosplenium alpinum) (Orchis ustulata). The park areal, after more than 100 years, a rare plant has been rediscovered known (Saussurea porcii - endemism for Rodna Mountain), floral element collected here last time in 1902 by the botanist Florian Porcius, permanent member of the Romanian Academy.
The Park’s fauna is a diverse and well represented by many species (some protected by law and on the IUCN Red List) of mammals, birds, fishes, reptiles and amphibians. Protected animals: (Rupicapra rupicapra), (Marmota marmota), (Ursus arctos), (Lutra Lutra), (Lynx lynx), (Felis silvestris), (Martes martes), (Martes foina), (Mustela nivalis), (Vulpes vulpes), (Capreolud capreolus), (Cervus elaphus), (Sus scrofa), (Sciurus vulgaris), ( Microtus tatricus), (Sicista betulin), (Microtus agrestis), (Microtus arvalis), (Talpa europaea), (Myotis blythii) and (Myotis myotis). Regarding the birds, in the park areal there are several ornithological species (of migratory and passage) listed in Annex I of the Directive of the European Council no. 147 / EC of 30 November 2009 (on the conservation of wild birds); including: (Aquila chrysaetos), (Aegolius funereus), (Tetrastes bonasia), (Caprimulgus europaeus), (Charadrius morinellus), (Ciconia nigra), (Dendrocopos leucotos), (Dryocopus martius), (Picoides tridactylus), (Ficedula parva), (Ficedula albicollis), (Glaucidium passerinum), (Lanius collurio), (Pernis apivorus), (Tetrao urogallus) and (Strix uralensis) that inhabit along with (Hieratus penatus), (Otus scops), (Bubo Bubo), (Athene Noctua), (Ciconia ciconia), (Ardea cinerea), (Corvus corax), (Lyrurus tetrix). (Lacerta agilis), (Lacerta viridis), (Natrix tessellata), (Coronella Austriaca), (Elaphe longissima), (Podarcis muralis), (Anguis fragilis), (Natrix Natrix), (Vipera berus), (Bombina variegate), (Triturus cristatus), (Triturus alpestris), (Triturus vulgaris), (Rana dalmatina), (Rana temporaria), (Hyla arborea) or (Salamandra salamandra).